I will add new terms as I discuss them in ongoing blog posts; also please read about The Three Tests. But for now, here are terms, as I encountered them in my reading of Khensur Rinpoche Geshe Lobsang Tarchin‘s Pointing the Way to Reasoning.
changing (mi tak-pa, mi rtag pa) a thing that is momentary (changing instant to instant)
collected topics (du-ra, bsdus grva): the introductory debate subjects taught to beginning students in Tibetan Buddhist monasteries.
existing thing (chu, chos): defined as “that which is established by a valid perception” (tse-may drup-pa, tsad ma’i sgrub pa). The same word in other contexts also means the Dharma (the teachings). Synonymous with shi-drup (established as existing), yul (object), yu-pa (yod pa, existing), and she-ja (knowable).
logic (rik-pa, rigs pa)
produced (che-pa, byas pa): something that is made. Synonymous with changing.
synonym (don-chik, don gcig): defined as “to be one is to be the other.”
unchanging (tak-pa, rtag pa) a thing that is not momentary (changing instant to instant)
valid cognition/perception (tse-ma, tsad ma): perceiving an object with an unobstructed/correct state of mind